May, 2010

Polypores of Sweden

Checklist of species                 * Red list

*Abortiporus biennisMurr.

Rare in southern Sweden (18 localities), mostly in parks,pastures and decidious forests. Fruitbodies sometimes distorted. Growson decidious wood (e.g. Quercus ), often buried in the ground.

*Albatrellus citrinusRyman

Newly described species, growing in calcarious Piceaforest. Close to A. subrubescens, but turning citric yellow on handling.

Albatrellus confluens S.F. Gray

Common in all of Sweden, except for the southernmost parts.Grows on the ground in coniferous forest.

*Albatrellus cristatus(Fr.) Kotl. & Pouz.

Very rare in the south of Sweden (7 localities). Almostexclusively in Fagus forest, where it grows on the ground.

Albatrellus ovinus (Schaeff.:Fr.)Murr.

Edible, well-known and widely distributed species growingon the ground in Picea forest.

*Albatrellus subrubescens(Murr.) Pouz.

Rare (15 localities) from the Stockholm area and northwards,also on Gotland. On the ground in old Pinus forest.

Albatrellus syringae (Parm.) Pouz.

This beautiful species with yellow pores is rather uncommon(58 localities); most frequent in the northern half of Sweden, but alsofound in the Stockholm area. Grassland, lawns, roadsides; normally notin forests, but always close to decidious trees.

*Amylocystis lapponica(Rom.) Sing.

Registered from about 350 localities, all of them in thenorthern part of the country. Grows exclusively on Picea in virginconiferous forest, where its occurence can vary considerably from one yearto another.

*Anomoporia albolutescens(Rom.) Pouz.

Extremely rare species, only found three times in Sweden.First described by Swedish mycologist Lars Romell from the norhernmostpart of the country in 1910, next time collected near Stockholm in 1995(H-G. Toresson) and in central Sweden in 1997 (B. Andersson). Grows onconiferous wood, but the few finds make it diffucult to establish its ecologicalpreferences.

*Anomoporia bombycina(Fr.) Pouz.

This rare resupinate seems to prefer shadowy, secludedspots in old, coniferous forest, where it grows close to the cround onthe underside of lying trunks.

Substrata: Picea and Pinus, once found onAlnus. Registered from 17 Swedish localities, both in the southernand northern part of the country.

*Anomoporia kamtschatica(Parm.) Bondartseva

Only recently separated from Anomoporia myceliosa,this is still a little known species. So far about a dozen collectionshave been made in Sweden, all from the southern half of the country. Coniferouswood.

*Anomoporia myceliosa(Peck) Pouz.

Most finds (41 localities) are from central Sweden, butit has not been possible to check all records as to the delimitation towardsAnomoporia kamtschatica, of which mycologists only recently havebeen made aware. The species normally grows on Picea or Pinus,but is has also been found on Juniperus and Betula.. Needsfurther study.

Antrodia albida (Fr. : Fr.) Donk

About 100 registered localities, mostly in central andsouthern Sweden. In the northern part of the country this species growsmainly on Betula and Alnus, further south on a variety ofdecidious trees, such as Salix, Malus, Corylus, Sorbusand Prunus. Very close to Antrodia heteromorpha, which isfound on coniferous wood.

*Antrodia albobrunnea(Rom.) Ryv.

Not uncommon in virgin Pinus forests in the northof Sweden, where it normally grows on the underside of lying trunks. Inthe southern parts very rare and only found in nature reserves.

*Antrodia crassa(Karst.) Ryv.

This impressive species (up to 3 cm thick!) is registeredfrom 16 localities from Stockholm and northwards. Found on Pinusand Picea in old coniferous forests.

*Antrodia gossypium(Speg.) Ryv.

Little known species, originally described from Argentina.Its occurence in Sweden is based on 3 old records (all from coniferouswood), but it has not been collected since 1951. Probably extinct.

Antrodia heteromorpha (Fr.: Fr.)Donk

Widespread in all of Sweden, except for the southernmostparts. It normally grows on Picea, but there are also collectionsfrom Pinus and from decidious wood (Betula, Alnus ).The latter come close to Antrodia albida, from which it sometimesis difficult to separate.

*Antrodia infirmaRenv. & Niemelä

First described in 1992, this is still a little knownpolypore. The scarcity of skeletal hyphae makes this species a very untypicalAntrodia, which can easily be confused with monomitic resupinates.So far only five Swedish finds, four on Pinus and one on Picea,all from the northern half of the country.

*Antrodia macra(Sommerf.) Niemelä

Rather rare, but probably overlooked because of the smallsize and the occurence on Salix in humid thickets difficult to penetrate.Also found on Populus tremula.. All over Sweden, but hitherto only35 records.

*Antrodia mellitaNiemelä & Pentt.

This newly described species (1992) resembles Antrodiaalbida and Antrodia heteromorpha, but has much shorterspores. There are five collections from the western parts of central Sweden,all on logs of Populus tremula felled by beaver (Castor fiber) or on remaining stumps.

*Antrodia primaevaRenv. & Niemelä

All records of this new species (1992) are from virginPinus forests in the northern part of Sweden. Probably very rare,but also little known among collectors.

*Antrodia pulvinascens(Pilát) Niemelä

Not more than 20 years ago Swedish polyporists were almostunaware of this conspicuous species, but since then it has proved to berather freqent. Today there are about 250 registered localities all overthe country, except for the southernmost provinces and Gotland. The normalsubstratum is Populus tremula, especially thick lying trunks.Also found on Salix..

Antrodia ramentacea (Berk. &Br.) Donk

This small species is seldom collected, but probably overlookedand likely to be rather common, at least in the southern half of Sweden.Typical occurence on recently fallen brances of Pinus, where itgrows on the bark.

Antrodia serialis (Fr.) Donk

One of the most common polypores on dead wood of Picea,both on lying trunks and stumps. On vertical substrata small, nodulosepilei are developed, but strictly resupinate forms are more frequent. Thelatter can often be difficult to identify, and remains of dead fruitbodiesare actually more characteristic...!

Antrodia sinuosa (Fr.) Karst.

Common all over Sweden, normally on conifers but occasionallyfound on decidious wood. Of all records 45% are from Picea, 42%from Pinus and 13% from unspecified coniferous wood.

Antrodia sitchensis (Baxter) Gilbn.& Ryv.

Found only once (2001, south of Stockholm), on coniferouswood. Characters like the brownish, resinous margin, a sweet odour andbitter taste should help to separate it from other species of the genus,but still it is likely to be overlooked.

Antrodia vaillantii (Fr.) Ryv.

A rare resupinate, mostly found in odd habitats, e.g.on structural (coniferous) timber in mines, on masonite and on variousremains on city dumps! This species has not been observed in nature duringthe field investigation.

Antrodia xantha (Fr.: Fr.) Ryv.

In southern and central Sweden this is a rather commonspecies on coniferous wood, preferably Pinus in open, dry forests.In northern Sweden, however, it is also found on Salix, often inrich, secluded and humid localities. Fruitbodies normally resupinate, butoccasionally small, nodulose pilei can be formed on vertical or slopingsubstrata (f. pachymeres ).

Antrodiella americana Ryv. &Gilbn.

There are about 30 records in Sweden of this small resupinate,which grows in close contact with dead fruitbodies of Hymenochaete tabacina(the exception is one record from Öland on Hymenochaete rubiginosa). Substrata: Salix, Sorbus, Corylus and Alnus.Probably overlooked or confused with Schizopora paradoxa..

*Antrodiella citrinellaNiemelä & Ryv.

This yellow resupinate (described in 1983) is obviouslyvery rare and restricted to virgin coniferous forests, where it grows onPicea. There are only three records from Sweden, two from the farnorth and one from Tyresta National Park south of Stockholm.

Antrodiella faginea Vampola &Pouzar

Macroscopically this species resembles Antrodiellasemisupina, but has gloeocystidia. So far, only a few finds from Sweden,on Ulmus and Salix. The typical substrate in Central Europethough, is Fagus.

*Antrodiella fissiliformis(Pil.) Gilbn. & Ryv.

Resembles Antrodiella romelliimicroscopically,but in the field it has slightly more vivid colours and thicker fruitbodies.Recently (2004) found on Fagusin SW Sweden.

Antrodiella hoehnelii (Bres.) Niemelä

This pileate or resupinate species is rather common, atleast in the southern and central parts of Sweden. It occurs on decidiouswood of many kinds, often in connection with fruitbodies of Inonotusradiatus or Inonotus nodulosus.

Antrodiella onychoides (Egel.) Niemelä

In Sweden there are only 9 records of this odd polypore,definitely no typical Antrodiella. All finds have been made in thesouthern half of the country, some of them in gardens and similar habitats.Grows on decidious wood.

*Antrodiella pallasiiRenvall, Johannesson & Stenlid

This newly described species has been separated from Antrodiellasemisupina, mainly because of its ecology. Most collections are fromnorthern Sweden, where the species occurs on or next to fruitbodies ofTrichaptum abietinum, mostly on Picea. Previousreports of Antrodiella parasitica should be referred to this species.

Antrodiella romellii (Donk) Niemelä

Despite being rather common and widespread, this strictlyresupinate species is still very anonymous to most collectors. It growson all kinds of decidious wood, normally on the underside of branches lyingon the ground. Probably overlooked or confused with resupinate specimensof Antrodiella semisupina, which is very close but has more roundedspores.

Host statistics (%): Corylus (35), Alnus(14), Populus (7), Betula (7), Quercus (6), Salix(5), Ulmus (1), Fraxinus (1), Fagus (1), unspecifieddecidious wood (23), also a single record from Picea.

Antrodiella semisupina (Berk. &Curt.) Ryv.

Common and widespread all over Sweden. It normally growson decidious wood, but in the north there is also a resupinate form onPicea, which probably belongs to the newly described Antrodiellapallasii.Sometimes this species is found on or next to fruitbodies of Fomes fomentarius.

Substrata (%): Betula (37), Alnus (18),Corylus (12), Populus (9), Fagus (7), Picea(7), Salix (6), Pinus (2), Quercus (1), Sorbus(1). Besides, there are occasional finds from Ulmus, Fraxinus,Rhamnus, Prunus and Acer.

Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.: Fr.)Karst.

This characteristic, dark-pored species is very commonboth in forests and on trees and stumps in parks, astures and other cultivatedhabitats. It grows on a wide range of decidious substrata (e.g. Betula,Fagus, Populus and Quercus ), sometimes also on Picea.

Bjerkandera fumosa (Pers.: Fr.) Karst.

Not very common, but widespread. It can be found in decidiousforests as well as in parks, but is also a characteristic species of Salixthickets on shores of lakes. Salix seems to be the favourite host(48%), followed by Populus, Ulmus, Betula and a varietyof other decidious substrata.

*Boletopsis grisea(Pk.) Bond. & Sing.

This polypore grows on the ground, normally in dry Pinusheaths, often together with species of Sarcodon and Hydnellum.It is more common in the northern part of Sweden, but its frequency variesgreatly from year to year due to changes in weather conditions.

*Boletopsis leucomelaena(Pers.) Fayod

A rare fungus, growing on the ground in rich Piceaforest. Most records from the southern half of Sweden.

*Ceriporia excelsa(Lund.) Parm.

This bluish resupinate grows on the underside of lyingbranches and trunks of decidious trees. There are so far 45 records, mostof them from the Stockholm area and southwards (only 3 finds from the northof Sweden).

Preferred substrata: Betula, Fagus, Alnus,Salix and Populus, but occasionally found on a number ofother decidious hosts.

Ceriporia purpurea (Fr.) Donk

During the field investigation this beautifully purplishresupinate proved to be less frequent than expected. Preferred habitatsseem to be humid Alnus forest and rich decidious forests with Fraxinus,but it is also found on other decidious substrata. So far, about 80 localitieshave been registered, most of them in the southern half of the country.

Ceriporia reticulata (Hoffm.: Fr.)Donk

The smallest of all Swedish polypores, definitely overlookedby collectors. It is, however, common on the underside of narrow branchesand sticks lying on the ground, and found on a large number of decidioussubstrata. No significant geographical preferences.

Ceriporia viridans (Berk. & Br.)Donk

Little known species, growing on the underside of smalltrunks and branches lying on the ground. Taxonomically, it is very closeto Ceriporia excelsa, but the pores are creamcoloured, often withgreenish, brownish or violet tinges. Grows on all kinds of decidious wood,but is most common on Populus and Corylus. Most records fromcentral and southern Sweden; hitherto registered from 72 localities.

Ceriporiopsis aneirina (Sommerf.:Fr.) Dom.

Populus tremula is the normal substratum for thisresupinate, which is found all over Sweden but more frequent in the centraland southern parts. Also found on Salix, Fraxinus and Corylus,but on the whole rather uncommon. In suitable localities it is often accompaniedby Oxyporus corticola and Antrodia pulvinascens. So far about90 localities.

Ceriporiopsis balaenae Niemelä

This small species was described in 1985, but the firstSwedish collections were made only a few years ago. However, it is notuncommon in Salix thickets, which seem to be its preferred habitat.Definitely overlooked and confused with Schizopora paradoxa; probablywidespread in all of Sweden.

Ceriporiopsis gilvescens (Bres.)Dom.

There is only one Swedish find of this species, datingfrom 1912 on an island in Lake Mälaren (decidious wood). Now probablyextinct.

*Ceriporiopsis jelicii(Tortic & David) Ryv. & Gilbn.

Recently found in northern Sweden, close to the Norwegianborder, on strongly decomposed coniferous wood in virgin natural forest.

Ceriporiopsis mucida (Pers. : Fr.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

Not uncommon, but seldom reported due to the fact thatit must be determined under the microscope. Grows on both decidious andconiferous substrata, above all on wood in advanced stages of decay.

Host statistics (%): Betula (38), Picea(35), Pinus (9), Populus (8), Quercus (2), Corylus(2), Fraxinus (1), Fagus (1), Tilia (1), Sorbus(1), Salix (1).

Widespread all over Sweden.

*Ceriporiopsis pannocincta(Rom.) Gilbn. & Ryv.

Rare species, registered from about 40 localities fromNorra Kvill National Park in Småland and northwards, most of themold, virgin forests. Grows on a variety of substrata, e.g. Betula,Populus, Alnus and Picea.

Ceriporiopsis resinascens (Rom) Dom.

This characteristic, darkening species is rather common,especially on dead branches of Salix in humid localities. Also foundon Populus tremula and occasionally on other decidious trees. Widelydistributed all over the country.

*Ceriporiopsis subvermispora(Pilát) Gilbn. & Ryv.

Little known species, so far only known from five Swedishlocalities. One find from Picea, the rest from decidious wood (Betula,Alnus ). Needs further study. 

Cerrena unicolor (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

83% of all records of this species are from Betula,the rest from other decidious wood, a few finds also on Picea. Verycommon throughout Sweden.

Climacocystis borealis (Fr.) Kotl.& Pouz.

Fruitbodies of this short-lived polypore can colonizestumps and lying trunks of Picea in large numbers. There are recordsfrom all Swedish provinces except Öland, and the localities are mostlyherb-rich Picea forests. So far about 500 records.

*Coltricia cinnamomea(Jacq.) Murr.

The latest record of this rare fungus is from 1962 (collectedin Småland by the late professor John Eriksson), and there are onlysix localities altogether. It grows on the ground in decidious forestswith Quercus and Fagus, but is probably no longer a naturalelement of the Swedish polypore flora.

Coltricia confluens Keizer

This newly described (1997) species was found in a privategarden in western Sweden in 1999. It is very close to Coltricia perennis,but differs in more irregular and normally confluent pilei and less obviousor even lacking zonation. Contrary to C. perennis, it seems to preferparks and plantations on fertlie soils with decidious trees.

Coltricia perennis (L.: Fr.) Murr.

Common all over the country, usually found with Pinuson sandy soils, roadsides etc.

*Coriolopsis gallica(Fr.) Ryv.

A rare polypore with a northern outpost in one singlelocality in Sweden, a nature reserve in the province of Västmanland(rich decidious forest), where it has been found on Fraxinus.

*Coriolopsis trogii(Berk.) Dom.

Definitely a southern species in Europe, but found ontwo localities in the vicinity of Stockholm. Substrata: Populus tremulaand unspecified decidious wood. Latest record from 1978.

Daedalea quercina L.:Fr.

This large and conspicuous fungus is very common on deadwood of Quercus in the southern part of Sweden.

Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolt.:Fr.)Schroet.

A variable species, preferably growing on Salix,but also on Betula, Alnus, Sorbus and a few otherhardwoods. Only found in the southern half of the country, and more commonin the western part.

Daedaleopsis septentrionalis (Karst.)Niemelä

This rather small polypore with discinctly lamellate hymenophoreis only found in the north of Sweden, where it grows on dead, still standingtrunks of Betula. Occasional records also from Sorbus andAlnus.

Number of registered localities: 140.

Datronia mollis (Sommerf. : Fr.)Donk

Common and widespread, this polypore is found on an impressivelylarge number of decidious substrata. Most common on Populus tremulaand Salix (39% and 18% respectively of all records).

Datronia stereoides (Fr. : Fr.) Ryv.

A rare species with resupinate or semi-resupinate fruitbodies.It grows mostly on sticks and thin branches of decidious wood, but hasonce been found on a cone of Picea ! Most localities (about 40)are in the northern half of Sweden.

Host statistics (%): Salix (62), Betula(18), Alnus (10), Sorbus (10), also occasional records fromPopulus and Ribes.

Dichomitus campestris (Quél.)Dom. & Orlicz

This characteristic species is most frequent in the easternregions of Sweden, where it grows mainly on dead parts of standing Corylus,sometimes also on dead branches of Quercus (6%). Besides, thereare records from Alnus, Fagus, Sorbus, Rosaand Salix. So far registered from about 500 localities.

*Dichomitus squalens(Karst.) D. Reid

Little known species, reported from 17 Swedish localities.Pinus is the normal host, but there are also collections from Picea.Most localities are in the very north of Sweden, but further south it isfound in the coastal region south of Stockholm.

*Diplomitoporus crustulinus(Bres.) Dom.

There are about 70 localities for this species, from theStockholm area and northwards. It normally grows on Picea, and doesnot seem to be restricted to virgin or even old forests.

*Diplomitoporus flavescens(Bres.) Dom.

Extremely rare species, only registered from two localitieson the mainland and one on Gotland. Restricted to Pinus.

Diplomitoporus lindbladii (Berk.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

This grey-pored resupinte is widespread and common inmost parts of Sweden, growing both on Picea and Pinus, sometimesalso on decidious wood (14% of all records). The pores darken with age,but young, creamish specimens can easily be identified under the microscopethanks to one unique character; skeletal hyphae dissolving in KOH.

Fomes fomentarius (L. : Fr.) Kickx

The most common polypore of Sweden, preferably growingon Betula and Fagus. So far almost 4000 registered localities. 

Fomitopsis pinicola (Swartz : Fr.)Karst.

Being number two on the frequency list, this well-knownand beautiful species can be found on almost any host, but it is by farmost common on Picea.

Major substrata (%): Picea (78), Betula(8), Alnus (6), Pinus (6), Populus (1), Fagus(1); in addition there are occasional records from 19 different trees orshrubs.

*Fomitopsis rosea(Alb. & Schw. : Fr.) Karst.

More than 1100 localities have so far been registeredfor this beautiful and characteristic polypore, most of them from the northernpart of the country. In the south, however, it is very rare, and beyonda line from the Stockholm area to the Norwegian border, it has been foundonly in the provinces of Östergötland, Småland and Gotland.The typical habitat is natural Picea forests, but it sometimes growson structural timber inside barns etc. There are also a few finds on Populus,Pinus and Alnus.

Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.

Frequently found on various decidious wood (rarely conifers)in the southern part of Sweden, in the north less common and mainly incoastal areas. There are records from 36 different substrata, of whichBetula, Populus, Quercus and Fagus dominate.

*Ganoderma australe(Fr.) Pat.

A Central European species with two localities in thesouth of Sweden, where it was recently found on Fagus andTilia.

Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt : Fr.)Karst.

This spectacular, shining polypore is often collected,but not very common. There are about 350 registered localities, mostlyfrom the southern half of the country. Normally, it grows on hardwoods(e.g. Betula, Alnus, Quercus and Fagus ), butalmost one third (29%) of all records are from Picea.

*Ganoderma pfeifferiBres.

In the southernmost provinces of Sweden this large polyporecan be admired in a number of localities, always on living, old Fagustrees. Seems to prefer rather open localities.

*Ganoderma resinaceumBoud.

In Sweden this is a little known species, recorded onlyfrom two localities (both nature reserves) in the southern part. It growsnear the base of old, living trees of Quercus.

*Gloeophyllum abietnum(Bull. : Fr.) Karst.

Scattered in the southern half of the country, but only34 localities altogether. Grows on coniferous wood, mainly Picea;also found on structural timbers.

*Gloeophyllum carbonarium(Berk. & Curt.) Ryv.

This species prefers charred, coniferous wood and haspreviously not been reported from Europe. Recently found on Pinusin the province of Hälsingland (central Sweden).

Gloeophyllum odoratum (Wulf. : Fr.)Imaz.

Widespread and rather common all around Sweden, normallygrowing on old stumps of Picea, often in localities dominated bydecidious trees. The pleasant fragrans makes this species easy to identify.

*Gloeophyllum protractum(Fr.) Imaz.

Rare species, almost exclusively found in the interiorparts of northern Sweden. It grows on decorticated logs of Pinus,often in sunny and open localities. There are so far 84 records of thispolypore, in Swedish mycological tradition formerly called "Gloeophyllumtrabeum", which is a southern species not yet recorded from Sweden.

Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulf. : Fr.)Karst.

A characteristic and very common species, registerad fromabout 2000 localities all over the country. It is normally found on deadwood of conifers (91% of all records are from Picea ), but thereare also finds from a number of hardwood genera. The fungus is resistantto drought, and is frequent both in forests and in clear-cut areas.

Gloeoporus dichrous (Fr. : Fr.) Bres.

This small, pileate species with beautifully purplishpores is not very common but widespread in all parts of Sweden. The preferredsubstratum is Betula, and it is often found on trees attacked byInonotus obliquus.

Major hosts (%): Betula (65), Alnus (17),Salix (12), Populus (3), Ulmus (1), Prunus(1), Sorbus (1). About 300 registered localities.

Gloeoporus taxicola (Pers. : Fr.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

In southern Sweden this species normally grows on Pinus,often in rather open localities, while its preferred habitat in the northernhalf of the country seems to be more secluded and humid Picea forests.There are so far about 500 registered localities; 67% of all records arefrom Pinus, the rest from Picea.

*Grifola frondosa(Dicks. : Fr.) S. F. Gray

This large, stipitate polypore with imbricate pilei isfound in the Quercus region of southern Sweden, but is not verycommon. The impressive basidiocarps seemingly grow on the ground, but areactually fruiting from the roots of living trees.

*Hapalopilus croceus(Pers. : Fr.) Bond. & Sing.

In Sweden there are only about 30 localities for thisbeautiful orange-reddish polypore, which depends on old Quercustrees for its survival. It is found both on living trees and logs on theground. The species is probably extinct or at least very close to extinctionin Norway and Denmark, and the Swedish localities definitely need protection.

Hapalopilus nidulans (Fr.) Karst.

A cinnamon-coloured species, rather common and widespread.It turns violet in contact with KOH, and the colour is often extractedand used for dyeing textiles. Grows on all kinds of decidious wood, e.g.Corylus, Betula and Sorbus.

*Hapalopilus salmonicolor(Berk. & Curt.) Pouz.

So far this resupinate has been recorded from a littlemore than 100 localities, most of them in the southern half of the country.Normally it is found on the underside of fallen trunks of Pinus,but 7% of all finds are from Picea. Obviously missing or very rarein parts of northern Sweden.

*Haploporus odorus(Sommerf. : Fr.) Sing.

The strong, sweetish smell is the most striking characterof this large species, which is found only in the northern part of thecountry. It grows almost exclusively on Salix, often in humid localitiesin mixed virgin forests dominated by conifers. So far there are about 600records.

Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.

As a pathogen, this species causes serious problems inplantations of conifers, especially Picea. It is also found on hardwoods(in some localities in the southernmost parts it is very fruequent on rootsof Fagus ) and is widespread and common all over Sweden. Effortsare now being made to find or develope natural enemies of this fungus inorder to reduce its negative economic consequences for the forest industry.

*Inonotus cuticularis(Bull. : Fr.) Karst.

There are hitherto only 22 registered localities for thisrare polypore, all in the southern half of the country. It normally growshigh above the ground on living trees of Fagus, but is also foundon Acer, Ulmus and Fraxinus. Prefers open decidiousforests, parks etc.

*Inonotus dryadeus(Pers. : Fr.) Murr.

Not more than about 30 localities recorded for this largeand impressive polypore, which is found mainly in the eastern and southernparts of the Quercus region. It grows near the base of old, livingoaks in decidious woods and parks, and is in strong need of long-term protectionof such habitats.

*Inonotus dryophilus(Berk.) Murr.

With the exception of the island of Öland, this speciesis found only in the region between Lake Vättern and the Stockholmarea. It normally grows high above the ground on living Quercus,not necessarily on giant trees. About 40 localities.

*Inonotus hispidus(Bull. : Fr.) Karst.

This hirsute, rather large polypore is found in a limitednumber of localities on the west coast, but is more frequent on the islandsof Öland and Gotland. Grows mainly on Fraxinus (54%), Sorbus(25%) and Ulmus (16%), but also an Malus and Tilia.Often found in tree-avenues of urban areas (which, by the way, is the casein the medieval city of Visby!).

*Inonotus leporinus(Fr.) Gilbn. & Ryv.

A member of the polypore flora of northern Sweden, butthere are a few localities in the Stockholm area and in the provinces ofNärke and Östergötland. It attacks living trees of Picea,but fruitbodies are mostly found on dead, lying trunks and stumps. Seemsto prefer old or virgin forests, but since it is an important pathogenits position on the red list is somewhat controversial! So far about 300localities have been registered.

Inonotus nodulosus (Fr.) Karst.

This resupinate or nodulose species grows only on Fagus,and is thus restricted to southern Sweden, where it is rather common. Foundin natural Fagus forests, but also in parks.

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát

The sterile and spectacular black conks of this speciesare developed on living trees, killing the sapwood and thus making wayfor the fertile resupinate fungus, fruiting inside the bark. For obviousreasons, most reports (totally about 1200) refer to the sterile form. Commonon Betula (94%) all over the country, but also occasionally foundon Alnus, Fagus, Populus, Tilia and Sorbus.

Inonotus radiatus (Sow. : Fr.) Karst.

A pileate-nodulose species, very common in the southernhalf of Sweden, further north mostly in coastal regions. It grows on awide range of decidiuos substrata, but is most common on Alnus (62%)in humid localities and on Corylus (35%) in decidious forests.

Inonotus rheades (Pers.) Karst.

Not very common, but widespread all over Sweden. The speciesgrows almost exclusively on Populus tremula (but occasionally foundon Betula, Prunus and Sorbus), both on old and youngerstanding trees, sometimes also on fallen trunks. Seems to prefer mixedforests with conifers, aspen and other decidious trees.

*Inonotus subiculosus(Pk.) Erikss. & Strid

There are currently only three localities in Sweden forthis rare resupinate, a taiga species found also in Finland, Estonia andnorthern Russia. The soft, cottony consistency and the lack of setae makeI. subiculosus an untypical but distinct member of the genus. TheSwedish records are from Betula, Picea and Pinus ,and the localities rather humid, herb-rich forests.

*Inonotus tomentosus(Fr.) Teng

Fruitbodies of this stipitate species can be found onthe ground or on coniferous wood in advanced stages of decay, normallyin Picea forest. It shows a preference for calcarious soils andfor forests formerly used as grazing land for cattle. There are hithertoabout 180 registered localities, most of them in the southern half of thecountry.

*Inonotus triqueter(Fr.) Karst.

A very rare polypore, which can be sessile to more orless stipitate. It grows on or near Pinus, in the latter case seeminglyon the ground but then always in connection with roots or buried wood.A southern species, known from 11 localities in the eastern part of Sweden,including Gotland.

*Inonotus ulmicolaCorfix.

As the name indicates, this resupinate polypore is restrictedto Ulmus. It is developed under the bark, which finally breaks open.Typically on living trees in parks, tree-avenues etc. Probably overlooked,but since it was described in 1990 the species has been recorded from 63localities in southern Sweden. However, it seems to be lacking in the westcoast region. Very close to  Inonotus obliquus,butalways without sterile conks.

Irpex lacteus (Fr. : Fr.) Fr.

Not common, but scattered all around southern and centralSweden; seems to be missing in the northernmost part. Recorded from varioushardwoods, most frequent on Sorbus (36%), Betula (18%), Populus(10%) and Salix (8%). Found both in semi-secluded forests and openland.

Ischnoderma benzoinum (Wahlenb. :Fr.) Karst.

There are about 1000 registered localities for this beautifulpolypore, which is widespread all over Sweden. It normally grows on deadwood of Picea (80%) or Pinus (20%), but occasional findsfrom various hardwoods exist.

*Ischnoderma resinosum(Fr.) Karst.

Very close to I. benzoinum, by some mycologistseven considered to be conspecific. There are, however, slight differencesin the appearance of the context, which is slightly more lightcolouredin this southern species. Recorded from about a dozen localities in thesouthernmost part of Sweden, always on decidious wood (Ulmus, Fagus).

*Junghuhnia collabens(Fr.) Ryv.

A rare resupinate polypore, registered from about 100localities in northern and central Sweden, southwards to the province ofÖstergötland. Restricted to old or virgin coniferous forests,where it normally grows on Picea (93%), rarely on Pinus (7%).The typical pinkish-brown colour and the frequent encrusted cystidia (visibleonly under the microscope) make it easy to separate from similar polypores,such as Gloeoporus taxicola and Phellinus viticola.

*Junghuhnia luteoalba(Karst.) Ryv.

Overlooked but widespread in all of Sweden (except thesouthernmost parts and the islands of Öland and Gotland), this polyporehas so far been reported from about 140 localities. It grows on stronglydecayed wood of Pinus (64%) and Picea (36%).

Junghuhnia nitida (Pers. : Fr.) Ryv.

Resupinate species with warm ochraceous pores, often witha pinkish tint. It grows on the underside of lying decidious wood (branchesetc.), very seldom on conifers. The localilties are often humid and interestingfrom a mycological point of view. So far there are about 500 records, mostof them from the southern half of Sweden, even though some collectionsfrom the very north of the country exist. Main substrata: Populus(34%), Salix (23%), Corylus (16%), Alnus (6%), Fraxinus(5%), Fagus (4%), Betula (4%).

Junghuhnia pseudozilingiana (Parm.)Ryv.

Resupinate, sometimes reflexed (-1 cm) species with ratherlarge (2-3/mm), irregular or even split ochraceous pores. On decidiouswood, sometimes overgrowing old basidiocarps of Inonotus and Phellinus.Found only once in Sweden (2001), on Betula and Phellinus nigricans.

*Junghuhnia separabilima(Pouz.) Ryv.

Only the more irregular, sinuous pores separate this speciesfrom J. nitida. It is definitely overlooked, but recorded from about25 localities scattered all over the country. Decidious wood.

Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull. : Fr.)Murr.

The imbricate clusturs of this beautiful fungus are normallyfound on living decidious trees, very seldom on conifers. Quercusis the preferred host (85%), but there are quite a few records from Prunus(7%), Salix (4%) and Fraxinus (3%). Fresh, sulphur yellowspecimens are often found early in the summer, but the colour rapidly turnsorange to buff. Old, dried fruitbodies are white and have a typical chalkyconsistency. Not uncommon in the southern half of Sweden, both in decidiousforests and on solitary trees in parks etc. One of the most fast-growingand short-lived polypores.

Lenzites betulina (L. : Fr.) Fr.

Rather common in all of Sweden, especially on stumps leftin grasslands or clear-cut areas in forest. The main hosts are Betula(72%) and Populus (17%), but it is also found on Quercus(8%), Picea (2%) and various decidious trees. Seen from above itcan easily be confused with Cerrena unicolor, Trametes hirsutaor Trametes ochracea, but the lamellate hymenophore makes it a verydistinct species.

*Leptoporus mollis(Pers. : Fr.) Quél.

This soft, pinkish to purplish species has been recordedfrom most parts of Sweden, but seems to be slightly more common in thenorth. Normally found in old coniferous forests on Picea (93%) orPinus (7%).

Meripilus giganteus (Pers. : Fr.)Karst.

Large species with numerous imbricate pilei arising froma common base. It is rather common in the southernmost parts, but thereare scattered records northwards to the Stockholm area. Mostly found onFagus (81%) and Quercus (19%), often on stumps; rarely onother hardwoods.

*Oligoporus balsameus(Peck) Gilbn. & Ryv.

A little known and very rare species, only found in fourlocalities; two in the Stockholm region, the others in the provinces ofNärke and Västergötland. All these records from Picea.

Oligoporus caesius (Schrad. : Fr.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

Common in all of Sweden, normally growing on dead woodof Picea (95%) or Pinus (5%), rarely on decidious trees.The bluish colour makes it very distinct, but Oligoporus subcaesius,normally growing on hardwoods and with slightly narrower spores, is veryclose.

*Oligoporus cerifluus(Berk. & Curt.) Ryv. & Gilbn.

A small, pendant species, which grows in crevices andhollows of very rotten coniferous wood. It is likely to be overlooked,and there has also been some confusion as to the taxonomy of this veryrare fungus. So far found in half a dozen localities, from the very northof Sweden to the Lake Vänern area in the south. Needs further study.

*Oligoporus floriformis(Quél.) Gilbn. & Ryv.

There are about 30 registered localities for this peculiarpolypore, most of them in the eastern parts of the country. The rosette-like,substipitate fruitbodies with imbricate pilei are normally found on conifers(Picea ), but there is one collection from decidious wood. Seemsto prefer older forests, where it grows in shadowy and humid areas.

Oligoporus folliculocystidiatus Kotl.& Vampola

This newly described species (1993) is very close to Oligoporuscerifluus and has probably been overlooked. Only two recent finds;one in the very north, one in central Sweden. Coniferous wood.

Oligoporus fragilis (Fr.) Gilbn.& Ryv.

Found all over Sweden, this is a rather common specieson dead wood of both Picea (57%) and Pinus (43%). Fruitbodiesturn reddish-brown on bruising and with age, until recently a unique characterin the Swedish polypore flora. In 1992, however, a similar fungus (Oligoporuslateritius ) was described, leading to taxonomical confusion. The lattergrows almost exclusively on Pinus and has narrower spores, but sinceit has been impossible to verify all previous records, some uncertaintyabout their identity unfortunately exists.

*Oligoporus guttulatus(Peck) Gilbn. & Ryv.

A substipitate, large species, which seems to be restrictedto the southern half of the country. Mostly found on Picea (92%)in old coniferous forest, rarely on Pinus and occasionally on decidiouswood (Sorbus ). Its occurence seems to be rather irregular dependingon prevailing weather conditions. So far recorded from 34 localities.

*Oligoporus hibernicus(Berk. & Broome) Gilbn. & Ryv.

This resupinate polypore represents a species complexwhich has not yet been fully clarified. There are whitish as well as yellowforms with subtile microscopical differences, and the confusion as to taxonomyand nomenclature make it difficult to evaluate the species. There are about40 records from all over the country except the southernmost parts, bothon Pinus (60%) and Picea (40%).

*Oligoporus lateritius(Renv.) Ryv. & Gilbn.

A newly described species (1992), which grows almost exclusivelyon Pinus. Most collections so far are from the northern part ofSweden, but further field studies are needed. Macroscopically it resemblesOligoporus fragilis (with broader spores) and large basidiocarpsof Oligoporus leucomallellus (with gloeocystidia). This polyporehas hitherto been recorded from less than 20 Swedish localities.

Oligoporus leucomallellus (Murr.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

A soft and short-lived pileate to semi-pileate species,microscopically well characterized by its gloeocysidia, but more anonymousin the field. The pore surface turns yellowish when bruised, but neverreddish-brown like the pores of O. fragilis. Found on lying trunksof Pinus (84%) and Picea (16), often early in the season.There are about 180 localities all over Sweden, but the species is probablyoverlooked.

*Oligoporus mappus(Overh. & Lowe) Gilbn. & Ryv.

Found only once in the very north of Sweden (on Salix), this rare resupinate definitely needs further study. Fruitbodiesare very thin, and the extremely long cylindric spores (-12 µm) separateit from all other Swedish species of Oligoporus.

Oligoporus norrlandicus Berglund& Ryvarden

Recently described from boreal Piceaforest in northernSweden. This white, resupinate species can be separated from similar membersof the genus by the ellipsoid spores, 2,5-3,5 µm broad.

*Oligoporus placenta(Fr.) Gilbn. & Ryv.

Currently there are about 20 registered localities forthis pinkish resupinate, from Småland in the south to the northernmostpart of the country. It is found on Pinus (64%) and Picea(36%), both in dry habitats and humid coniferous forests. The salmon-pinkcolour sometimes disappears on drying, and such specimens from Pinuscan easily be confused with the recently described Antrodia infirmaand Antrodia primaeva, both with slightly larger spores, but withfew skeletal hyphae and thus appearing monomitic if not thoroughly examined.

Oligoporus ptychogaster (C.A. Ludw.)Donk

The preceding imperfect stage of this polypore is farmore conspicuous and frequent than the basidiocarps. The latter are rathersmall and whitish, but rarely present next to the cushion-like, somewhathairy formations that eventually disintegrate into a brown, powdery massof chlamydospores, reminding of certain myxomycetes. It is found on woodof Picea (80%) and Pinus (20%), and there are so far about170 records, mostly from southern and central Sweden.

Oligoporus rennyi (Berk. & Broome)Donk

A widespead resupinate, but probably overlooked or confusedwith other species. It grows on the underside of very rotten wood of Pinus(56%) or Picea (44%), sometimes also on structural timber inhouses, mines etc. The abundance of spores makes it rather easy to identifyunder the microscope; in the field the best characters are the soft consistencyand the chlamydospores often present as a powder at the margin or in cavitiesin the wood. So far about 50 registered localities.

*Oligoporus septentrionalisVampola

Little known species, very close to Oligoporus hibernicusbut with yellowish pores. There is so far only one collection from a herb-richconiferous forest in Hälsingland (central Sweden). Needs further study. 

Oligoporus sericeomollis (Romell)Bondartzeva

The conical thick-walled cystidia make this a distinctspecies, but since it can only be identified microscopically, there arehitherto not more than about 170 records from all parts of Sweden. Seemsto be equally common on Pinus and Picea, often on the undersideof wood in late stages of decay.

Oligoporus simani (Pilát)Bernicchia

This rare, normally resupinate species is very close toOligoporus hibernicus, and has the same type of cystidia. Foundonly once on an island off the coast of Skåne (1997). The host wasSambucus, while all Swedish records of O. hibericus are fromconiferous wood.

Oligoporus stipticus (Pers. : Fr.)Gilbn. & Ryv.

This bitter-tasting, whitish polypore is slightly morecommon in the southern half of Sweden than in the north. 98% of all therecords (so far about 700) are from Picea, but there are also afew finds from Pinus and from decidious wood.

Oligoporus subcaesius (David) Ryv. &Gilbn.

Together with Oligoporus caesius, this is the onlypolypore with bluish tints both on pileus, pores and in the context. Thespecies is common all over Sweden and differs from O. caesius innarrower spores and occurence on decidious wood. Main substrata (%): Populus(51), Corylus (21), Fagus (10), Salix (8), Alnus(5), Betula (3), Fraxinus (1), Prunus (1).

Oligoporus tephroleucus (Fr.) Gilbn.& Ryv.

A very variable fungus in size and general appearance,found both on coniferous and decidious hosts. There has long been someconfusion as to nomenclature (previously called Tyromyces lacteus )taste (mild, but sometimes described as bitter) and rot (brown rot, althoughallegedly white rot for the non-bitter variety) of this species, whichis common all over the country. Most frequent on conifers (Picea57%, Pinus 10%), but also recorded from a large number of hardwoods,e.g. Betula (11%), Populus (9%) and Alnus (3%). Ondecidious substrata likely to be confused with Tyromyces chioneus,which differs microscopically and causes a white rot.

*Oligoporus undosus(Peck) Gilbn. & Ryv.

There are hitherto about 50 localities for this rare semi-pileatepolypore, most of them from central and northern Sweden. It is normallyfound in mixed coniferous forests of considerable age, both on Picea(66%) and Populus (34%), occasionally on Betula and Pinus.Most records from recent years.

Oxyporus borealis G.M. Jenssen &Ryv.

Annual species with small, thin, sometimes flabellatepilei. Described from the northernmost part of Norway (Betula);found only once in central Sweden. The thick-walled, mostly smooth cystidiawill separate the species from young specimens of Oxyporus populinusand semi-pileate forms of Oxyporus corticola.

Oxyporus corticola (Fr.) Ryv.

Resupinate, rather variable species, which rarely formssemi-pileate structures (such forms have formerly been described as a separatespecies, Oxyporus ravidus ). Distributed all over Sweden and ratherfrequent (more than 600 registered localities), it normally grows on thebark of lying trunks of Populus (89%), but is also found on otherhardwoods and occasionally on Picea.

*Oxyporus obducens(Pers.) Donk

A little known fungus, sometimes described as an annualand resupinate form of Oxyporus populinus. However, the spores ofO. obducens are distinctly ellipsoid, while those of O. populinusare globose. So far there are about a dozen records of this species fromdecidious woods in the southern half of Sweden. Needs further study.

Oxyporus populinus (Schumach. : Fr.)Donk

Normally pileate and perennial, but sometimes resupinateand annual, this polypore is very variable, also in size. Fruitbodies areoften found on living trees high above the ground (not always easy to seebecause they are often covered with mosses) but can also grow at the base.There are about 500 records from all of Sweden, but it is most common inthe cultivated areas of the southern parts, often i parks, tree-avenuesetc. Acer is the preferred substratum, but it is found on a widerange of decidious trees.

*Pachykytospora tuberculosa(Fr.) Kotl. & Pouz.

Fresh specimens of this perennial resupinate have a distictrose tint, but older fruitbodies become creamcoloured or ochraceous. Itnormally grows on dead, still attached branches of Quercus highabove the ground, more rarely on fallen trunks. About 200 localities registeredfrom the Quercus region.

Parmastomyces transmutans (Overh.)Ryvarden & Gilbn.

Found only once (2005), in northern Sweden on Pinus.The species has a somewhat eastern distribution in Europe, where it hasalso been collected on Picea. The combination of a monomitic hyphalsystem and strongly dextrinoid spores makes this a unique species amongSwedish polypores.

*Perenniporia fraxinea(Bull. : Fr.) Ryv.

This perennial, pileate species is very rare in Sweden,only found on the islands of Öland and Gotland. It grows on livingdecidious trees, on Gotland on Ulmus in rich decidious forest, onÖland on Quercus 

*Perenniporia medulla-panis(Jacq. : Fr.) Donk

There are about 100 records of this perennial resupinate,all from the Quercus region of southern Sweden. It is normally foundon the sides of Quercus stumps (sometimes hidden in cavities), butvery occasionally recorded also from other decidious substrata. Grows bothin open land and in forests, in the latter case often on stumps in habitatsdominated by other decidious trees.

Collections of Perenniporia medulla-panis var. multistratosafrom Picea in northern Sweden are likely to represent Perenniporiasubacida. 

Perenniporia narymica (Pilát)Pouz.

A little known species, collected only once on a stumpof Picea in the province of Närke in central Sweden. Differsfrom Perenniporia medulla-panis in the amyloid reaction of the skeletalhyphae.

*Perenniporia subacida(Peck) Donk

This large and impressive, perennial resupinate has beenfound in about 100 localities, mostly in northern and central Sweden, butthere are also a few records in the Stockholm area and southwards to thenorthern part of Småland. It normally grows on Picea (94%)in virgin coniferous forest, but there are also records from Betula(3%), Prunus (3%) and a few other decidious trees.

*Perenniporia tenuis(Schwein.) Ryv.

Very rare in Sweden, only collected three times in theprovinces of Östergötland, Västmanland and Lappland. Thepores are creamcoloured to bright yellow (var. pulchella ), andthe resupinate fruitbodies are thinner than those of the other speciesof the genus. Found on Populus and Salix. Definitely in needof further study.

Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat.

A large, stipitate polypore, widespread and rather common(so far about 300 localities) all over Sweden. It normally grows on theground from roots or conifer debris, but can also be found on stumps, lyingtrunks and fallen branches. Pinus (71%) is the major host, but itis not uncommon on Picea (15%) and Larix (14%); very rarelyon decidious wood.

*Phellinus chrysoloma(Fr.) Donk

This pileate species seems restricted to Picea,and is rather common, especially in the northern parts of the country.Not yet recorded from Öland and the southernmost parts of the mainland.So far more than 1000 localities.

Phellinus conchatus (Pers. : Fr.)Quél.

A pileate, rarely resupinate polypore, which is widespreadand common all over Sweden. Its normal host is Salix (99%), butthere are occasional records from a large number of decidious trees.

Phellinus contiguus (Fr.) Pat.

Rather large pores and a very thin context are the maincharacters of this resupinate, which is mostly found on Hippophaëin the coastal regions north of Stockholm, more rarely on the west coast.There are also a few finds from other decidious trees and bushes. Onlylocally frequent; altogether 16 localities.

Phellinus ferreus (Pers.) Bourd.& Galz.

This resupinate or sometimes nodulose species seems tobe restricted to the western parts of southern Sweden, where it is rathercommon. It grows on dead wood of decidious trees, mainly Quercus(82%) and Corylus (11%).

*Phellinus ferrugineofuscus(Karst.) Bourd. & Galz.

A perennial, resupinate species, often of long dimensions.It grows almost exclusively on logs of Picea in old coniferous forest,and is most common in the northern half of the country. In recent years,selected search for this polypore has resulted in about 2500 records.

Phellinus ferruginosus (Schrad. :Fr.) Bourd. & Galz.

So far there are about 120 records of this resupinate,which grows mainly in the rich decidious forests of southern Sweden. Thereis a concentration of localities in the southernmost parts and in the Stockholm- Uppsala region in the east, a few finds in the western parts and on theislands of Öland and Gotland; elsewhere obviously lacking. It normallygrows on the underside of branches on the ground, preferably on Corylus(40%), Ulmus (23%) and Fagus (9%).

Phellinus hippophaëcola Jahn

A small, pileate species, previously described as a formof the larger Phellinus robustus. Restricted to coastal localitieswith Hippophaë, and in such habitats locally frequent on theeast coast from Stockholm and northwards. Also found in one locality inSkåne (Scania). Hitherto about 35 records.

Phellinus igniarius (L. : Fr.) Quél.

Several varieties exist of this perennial, pileate polypore,which is common on living decidious trees all over Sweden. The list ofhosts is very long, e.g. Salix (52%) Betula (20%), Alnus(10%), Sorbus (6%), Corylus (4%), Malus (3%), Fagus(3%). The form commonly found on Salix has been described as a speciesof its own, Phellius trivialis (Bres.) Kreisel,but is here treated as a variety. For practical reasons it has also beennecessary to include Phellinus alni (Bondartsev) Parm.(described on Alnus ) and Phellinus cinereus (Niemelä)M. Fischer (a small greyish species on Betula ) inthe main form.

Phellinus laevigatus (Fr.) Bourd.& Galz.

This perennial species is widespread and common in allparts of Sweden, and is normally found on lying trunks of Betula,rarely on dead, standing trees. Fruitbodies are mostly completely resupinate,but weakly semi-pileate forms have been observed, coming very close toPhellinus lundellii. In the field it is also sometimes confusedwith Phellinus punctatus, which, however, lacks setae.

So far about 700 registered localities.

Phellinus lundellii Niemelä

There are about 500 records of this semi-pileate, imbricatespecies, which is rather common in all of Sweden but more frequent in thenorthern parts. It grows on dead wood of decidious trees, pimarily on Betula(90%) and Alnus (9%). Likely to be overloooked or confused withother species of the Phellinus igniarius complex.

Phellinus nigricans (Fr.) Karst.

An anonymous but rather frequent polypore, growing ondead or dying, often still standing trunks of Betula (98%) and Alnus(2%), rarely on other hosts. It is distributed all over the country (sofar about 900 localities), but often confused with Phellinus igniarius,from which it differs in occurence on dead wood, sharper margin and distinct,radial cracks in the crust of the pileus.

*Phellinus nigrolimitatus(Rom.) Bourd. & Galz.

Fruitbodies of this polypore are semi-pileate to resupinate,and the small, brown pores often have a distict greyish tint. It is foundin most parts of Sweden, but definitely more common in the northen half;so far about 900 localities altogether. Prefers old coniferous forest,where it grows on Picea (94%) and Pinus (6%), mostly on theunderside of fallen trunks. The name refers to the black line separatingdifferent layers of the context.

*Phellinus pini(Fr.) Ames

A pileate, long-lived species exclusively found on old,living trees of Pinus. Frequent in most parts of Sweden (so farabout 900 registered localities), but uncommon in the west coast region.Very close to Phellinus chrysoloma, which grows on Picea.

Phellinus pomaceus (Pers.) Maire

This parasitic semi-piletate to pileate polypore is onlyfound in the southern half of the country. The normal substrata are differentspecies of Prunus, but it is also recorded from Malus andCrataegus. Often found in gardens and orchards, seldom in forest.About 320 registered localities.

*Phellinus populicolaNiemelä

Widespread but not common (about 250 localites), thislarge polypore resembles Phellinus igniarius, but is restrictedto Populus. It grows from necrotic depressions on living trees,often in semi-secluded decidious forests. Differs from the much more commonPhellinus tremulae in the sharp margin and the more protruding pileus.

Phellinus punctatus (Karst.) Pilát

With age this resupinate species becomes characteristicallycushion-shaped, and is rather easy to identify ñalso in the microscope,due to the lack of setae. It normally grows on standing, dead stems ordead, still attached branches of decidious trees, mainly Salix (64%)and Corylus (27%), but has been recorded from a large number ofhardwood substrata. Common in southern and central Sweden, less frequentin the northern parts. Sometimes confused with Phellinus laevigatus,which is more asymmetrical, mainly found on Betula and has abundanthymenial setae.

*Phellinus robustus(Karst.) Bourd. & Galz.

Large, perennial species, almost exclusively found onQuercus. Common in the eastern part of southern Sweden, less frequentin the western and southernmost parts. About 360 registered localities.

Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond.& Borissov

The most frequent polypore on living Populus tremula,widespread in all of Sweden. Normally pileate, but semi-resupinate fruitbodiesare often found on the underside of attached branches high above the ground.

Phellinus viticola (Schwein. in Fr.)Donk

A rather variable fungus, growing on Picea (95%)and Pinus (5%) in old or medium-aged coniferous forests. On verticalsubstrata more or less pileate, on the underside of lying trunks and branchesnormally resupinate. The reddish tint of the pores separate this speciesfrom Phellinus nigrolimitatus, which has a greyish brown pore surface.Widespread in all parts of the country, more common in the northern half.So far about 1300 records.

*Phylloporia ribis(Schumach. : Fr.) Ryv.

The host is actually the best clue to the identity ofthis rare polypore, which grows on Ribes rubrum (68%), R. uva-crispa(29%) and R. alpinum (3%), rarely on other substrata. The basidiocarpsare normally found near the base of the bushes, pilei often encirclingstems and branches. There are about 100 registered localities, all fromthe southern and central parts of Sweden.

Physisporinus sanguinolentus (Alb.& Schwein. : Fr.) Pilát

The tiny pores of this resupinate turn reddish shortlyafter bruising, but eventually become brown, dark greyish or blackish.Dry specimens with dark colours are not easy to observe, and the speciesis probably overlooked. It grows on the underside of strongly decayed woodof both coniferous and decidious trees, sometimes on stumps. Less than100 records from the southern half of the country. Hosts (%): Picea(20), Alnus (14), Fagus (12), Pinus (6), Betula(5), Quercus (3); also observed on Populus, Corylus,Prunus, Tilia, Acer, Sorbus and Salix.Physisporinus vitreus is very close microscopically, but differsin thicker fruitbodies, more waxy consistency and pores turning greyish-blackwithout a reddish phase.

Physisporinus vitreus (Pers. : Fr.)Karst.

Uncommon (about 50 registered localities from southernand central Sweden), but probably overlooked, this rather thick, waxy resupinatenormally grows on very rotten wood, sometimes spreading on to the groundnext to stumps, logs etc. There are also records from the interior of greenhousesand similar buildings, in such cases partly covering floors and walls.Found on a number of hosts, e.g. Fagus, Picea, Alnusand Betula.

*Piloporia sajanensis(Parm.) Niemelä

Endangered and very rare, this (semi-)resupinate, rathersoft polypore has only been found in seven localities in the western andnorthern parts of Sweden. All records are from Picea in old coniferousforests. Under the microscope the best clue to identification is the combinationof pigmented hyphae and small, allantoid spores.

Pitoporus betulinus (Bull. : Fr.)Karst.

This well-known, soft polypore is widespread and verycommon all over Sweden. Restricted to Betula, often found on dead,still standing trunks in all kinds of forests. So far about 2500 registeredlocalities.

*Piptoporus quercinus(Schrad.) Pilát

There are hitherto not more than about 15 records of thisbeautiful, yellowish polypore, all of them from the Quercus regionsof southern Sweden. It is found both i decidious woods and pastures, normallyon living oaks high above the ground. Young fruitbodies have a fleshy,juicy consistency.

*Polyporus badius(Pers.) Schwein.

Very rare from Stockholm and southwards (only 7 localities),this large polypore seems restricted to rich decidious forests, where itgrows on lying trunks and stumps. Ulmus is the favourite host, butthe species has also been found on Fagus. Sometimes confused withthe more frequent Polyporus melanopus, which has paler greyish-browncolours on the pileus and clamped generative hyphae.

Polyporus brumalis Pers. : Fr.

Fruitbodies of this stipitate species are mostly foundin late autumn, winter or early spring, usually on wood of various decidioustrees, sometimes buried in the ground. So far there are about 900 recordsfrom all Swedish provinces; it grows both in humid decidious forests, openland and clear-cut areas. The pores are distinctly angular and rather wide,good characters to seperate it from Polyporus ciliatus, which isvery close but has smaller, round pores.

Polyporus ciliatus Fr.

This stipitate polypore is very variable, and differentforms can be found in spring and summer. The spring form is normally abouttwice the size of the summer form, and was previously described as a speciesof its own, Polyporus lepideus Fr. Bothvarieties grow on decidious wood, often buried in the ground. Common andwidespread all over Sweden.

Polyporus melanopus Sw. : Fr.

Seemingly growing on the ground, but this large, stipitatepolypore fruits from roots and buried wood of decidious trees. The bestcharacters are the brownish-black coating covering the entire stipe andthe greyish-brown pileus, which on young specimens can be very light-coloured,sometimes almost white. The species is widespread but not very common (sofar about 250 localities), mostly found in decidious forest and grasslands.Very close is Polyporus tubaeformis, which is smaller andhas a warm red-brown colour.

*Polyporus pseudobetulinus(Pilát) Thorn, Kotiranta & Niemelä

This rare polypore resembles Piptoporus betulinus,but has more yellowish colours, simple septate hyphae and grows almostexclusive on Populus tremula (one record from Salix ). Onlysix Swedish localities, five from the north of the country, one from asmall island in the Baltic (Gotska Sandön National Park). Needs furtherstudy.

Polyporus squamosus Huds. : Fr.

There are about 300 registered localities for this largeor very large polypore, which has pilei with dark scales on a yellowish-brownbackground. It attacks living trees as well as dead wood, and is foundboth in decidious woods, parks and tree-avenues. Widespread, but seemsto be more common in the southern half of the country. Main hosts (%):Salix (30), Ulmus (26), Fraxinus (17), Acer(7), Fagus (5), Tilia (4), Alnus (3), Quercus(3).

Polyporus tubaeformis (Karst.) Ryv.& Gilbn.

Although this polypore was described by P. Karsten morethan a hundred years ago (as a variety of Polyporus varius ), itis still a little known species in Sweden. This is mainly due to confusionwith Polyporus melanopus, which is bigger and has a more greyish-brownishpileus, and Polyporus badius with similar colours but larger sizeand different habitat. The reddish-brown pileus of P. tubaeformisis deeply umbilicate, and seldom exceeds 5 cm in width. The species isonly recorded from the northern half of Sweden (so far about 25 localities),where it usually grows on dead wood of Alnus, Betula or Salixin humid habitats.

*Polyporus tuberasterJacq. : Fr.

A rare, scaly species, only found in a few localitiesin the very south of Sweden. It grows on decidious wood or from a large,blackish sclerotium in the ground. Close to Polyporus squamosus,but usually of smaller dimensions.

*Polyporus umbellatusFr.

There are only about 25 localities for this large, conspicuousfungus, all except one from the southern part of Sweden. The fruitbodiesconsist of hundreds of round, ochraceous pilei arising from a stronglybranched stipe, and they are found on the ground in rich decidious or mixedforests, rarely in grasslands. Sometimes confused with Grifola frondosa,which, however, has darker, more fan-shaped or flabelliform pilei.

Polyporus varius Fr.

As the name indicates, this species is very variable insize and appearance, but usually easy to identify thanks to the yellowish-browncolour and the black tomentum at the base of the stipe. Grows on dead woodof an impressively large number of decidious trees (most frequent on Salix), and is common all over Sweden.

*Protomerulius caryae(Schwein.) Ryv.

This rare, resupinate fungus was found in Sweden for thefirst time in the autumn of 1996, and there are now 6 localities altogether.Substrata: Decayed wood of Betula, Fagus, Salix, Ulmusand Picea. Although this species is distinctly poroid, it actuallybelongs to the Heterobasidiomycetes. The dark, brownish colour of the poresurface may lead to confusion with Antrodia sinuosa or similar species,and it is likely to have been overlooked.

*Pycnoporellus alboluteus(Ellis & Everh.) Kotl. & Pouz.
A very rare species in all of Europe, and there are onlytwo Swedish localities: One in the province of Dalarna(central Sweden) and on from Norrbotten in the very north. The orange-coloured,resupinate fruitbodies with large pores splitting into a tooth-like hymenophoreare extremely conspicuous. Grows on Picea in old coniferous forest.

*Pycnoporellus fulgens(Fr.) Donk

A rare but widespread, pileate polypore with orange toreddish-brown fruitbodies, so far registered from about 40 Swedish localities.It normally grows on Picea in old coniferous forest, but there areoccasional records from Pinus, Populus and Betula.Most finds have been made during the last 15 years.

Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacq. :Fr.) Karst.

The orange-coloured pileus and the reddish pore surfacemake this fungus one the the most beautiful and characteristic speciesof the Swedish polypore flora.

Widespread and rather common (so far about 800 localities),normally found in poor, sunny and open localities. Most frequent on Betula(57%) and Sorbus (28%), but recorded from numerous hardwood genera.

Schizopora paradoxa (Schrad. : Fr.)Donk.

This common resupinate has a very variable hymeophore,ranging from poroid to distinctly hydnoid; sometimes these forms are foundwithin the same specimen! It grows on dead wood of decidious trees, rareleyon conifers, and is most frequent in the southern and central parts ofSweden. Main substrata (%): Corylus (28), Salix (17), Quercus(16), Alnus (10), Betula (10), Fagus (9) and Populus(7).

Close to Hyphodontia (Corticiaceae), which, however,lacks skeletal hyphae. For practical reasons the newly described Schizoporaradula Hallenb.(a form with very few skeletals)has been included in the main species during the investigation. So farabout 1200 registered localities.

Skeletocutis amorpha (Fr.) Kotl.& Pouz.

A small, pileate species, mostly found on stumps of Pinus(65%) and Picea (35%). Young pores are whitish, but turn beautifullyorange with age. Widespread in all of Sweden, hitherto about 850 localities.

*Skeletocutis borealisNiemelä

A newly described, perennial species resembling Skeletocutisstellae and Skeletocutis nivea . Pores are very small (6-8/mm),pale cream, sometimes with a pinkish tint. The fungus grows on both coniferousand decidious wood (Picea and Sorbus ), and has hithertobeen found in the Swedish provinces of Lappland and Värmland.

*Skeletocutis brevisporaNiemelä

A newly described species growing on dead fruitbodiesof Phellinus sp., preferably Phellinus ferrugineofuscus.So far only a few scattered finds from different parts of the country.

Skeletocutis carneogrisea David

This resupinate to weakly pileate polypore is probablyoverlooked, but has been recorded from about 160 localities in most partsof the country. The species is very close to Skeletocutis amorpha,but the pores are typically pinkish-grey, not turning orange with age.Fruitbodies are always found on or next to dead basidiocarps of Trichaptumabietinum, usually on Picea (89%) but also on Pinus (11%).

*Skeletocutis chrysellaNiemelä

This newly described resupinate is almost exclusivelyfound on dead basidiocarps of Phellinus chrysoloma, rarelyon wood attacked by that species. So far only a few records from the northernhalf of Sweden.

*Skeletocutis kuehneriDavid

A member of a species complex which needs further study.There are so far only six records in Sweden of this small, thin resupinategrowing on coniferous wood, three in the Stockholm area, one south of Stockholmand two in the far north. The pores split like they do in Skeletocutisodora, but the spores are slightly smaller.

*Skeletocutis lenis(Karst.) Niemelä

Rather anonymous species, under the microscope easilyidentified by the typical lunate spores, but in the field often confusedwith species like Ceriporiopsis mucida, Junghuhnia luteoalbaand even Skeletocutis subincarnata. It grows mainly on Pinusin old, coniferous forests and seems to be most common in the northernhalf of Sweden. Records from hardwoods should be referred to the newlydescribed Skeletocutis vulgaris.

*Skeletocutis lilacina     David  & Keller

A thin, resupinate species with lilac pore surface, sometimeswith a greyish tint. Recently found on Picea in the northernmostpart of Sweden, but very rare.

Skeletocutis nivea (Jungh.) Keller

This tough polypore, which can be resupinate or pileate,seems to be restricted to rich decidious forests in the southern half ofSweden. It is normally found on the underside of lying branches of Fraxinus(95%), but also on Corylus, Fagus and a number of other hardwoods.The pores are first whitish, turning brownish or greenish-brown in patcheswith age or on bruising. Not uncommon; so far about 450 registered localities.

*Skeletocutis ochroalbaNiemelä

Described from Canada in 1985, this rare polypore wasdiscovered in two localities in central Sweden in the autumn of 1992 (presumablythe first records from Europe), also found in 1997 further south . In thefield this species resembles nodulose-pileate specimens of Antrodiaserialis, but under the microscope it comes close to Skeletocutisnivea.The localities are old coniferous forests mixed with decidioustrees. Substrata: Picea and unidentified coniferous wood.

*Skeletocutis odora(Sacc.) Ginns

The nauseous odour and the splitting pores are the bestcharacteristics of this resupinate, rather large species, mostly foundin virgin coniferous forests. It is most frequent in the north of Sweden,but there are localities as far south as in Småland. Prefers logsof Picea (96%), but also found on Populus tremula (3%), Pinus(1%) and occasionally on Betula and Sorbus. Altogether about250 registered localities.

*Skeletocutis papyraceaDavid

Only one Swedish specimen of this species has been determinedwith certainty, growing on Pinus in the area north of Stockholm.Microscopical characters are difficult to observe, and it is likely tobe confused with other members of the genus.

*Skeletocutis stellae(Pilát) Keller

A perennial, resupinate species with small, unevenly colouredpores, often with olivaceous tinges. There are hitherto about 75 Swedishlocalities, most of them from the northern half of the country. Seems toprefer old coniferous forests, where it grows on logs of Picea (93%)and Pinus (%). The thick fruitbodies, the colour of the pore surfaceand the layered tubus separate this fungus from other species of the genusfound in the area.

Skeletocutis subincarnata (Peck)Keller

Widespread and rather common all over Sweden (so far about700 localities), this resupinate seems to be a member of a species complexnot yet fully clarified. Many microscopically "untypical" collections (oftenfrom dead basidiocarps of Phellinus ) indicate that more speciesmight be involved, but in the field it is more uniform and especially young,thin specimens can often be identified on the spot due to the bluish-whitetinges of the pore surface. Older fruitbodies are more yellowish, and easilyconfused with Antrodia xantha or Skeletocutis lenis. Growsmostly on Pinus (65%) and Picea (35%), but there are alsooccasional records from decidious wood.

Skeletocutis vulgaris (Fr.) Niemelä& Y.C. Dai

This recently recognized species is very close to Skeletocutislenis, from which it is separated by thinner, mostly annual fruitbodiesand narrower spores. Seems to grow preferably on Picea and angiosperms,seldom on Pinus. Hitherto only found in the southern half of Sweden.

Spongipellis delectans (Peck) Murr.

A member of the polypore flora of central and southernEurope, this pileate species was previously found in Denmark and recently(1994) also in one single locality in Sweden, an island off the coast ofSkåne (Scania). On Fagus.

*Spongipellis pachyodon(Pers.) Kotl. & Pouz.

Not found in Sweden since 1913 (near Stockholm, on Fraxinus), this conspicuous polypore with a lamellate to distinctly hydnoidhymenophore is probably extinct in the country.

*Spongipellis spumeus(Sowerby : Fr.) Pat.

From the southern half of the country there are so farabout 85 localities for this pileate, somewhat hirsute species growingon decidious wood. Found in tree-avenues, parks and similar habitats, rarelyin forest. Most common on Acer (43%), Ulmus (21%) and Aesculus(5%), but recorded from a number of other hardwoods.

Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr.

The elongated pores and the tough consistency are goodcharacters for determination of this pileate species, which grows almostexclusively on dead wood of Fagus. There are about 100 registeredlocalities, most of them from the very south of Sweden.

Trametes hirsuta (Fr.) Pilát

One of the most common polypores in sunny, open localitiesall over Sweden, but also frequent in forests. The hirsute pileate andthe round, greyish pores make it easy to identify, but from above it resemblesboth Lenzites betulina and Cerrena unicolor. Recorded fromabout 1600 localities and from a large number of decidious substrata, e.g.Betula (34%), Populus (14%), Sorbus (10%), Salix(9%), Alnus (7%), Fagus (6%), Quercus (6%) and Prunus(6%).

Trametes ochracea (Pers.) Gilbn.& Ryv.

Extremely common in all parts of the country (about 2500records), especially on Betula (55%) and Populus (39%). Sometimesconfused with Trametes versicolor, which is thinner and hasa pileus with a combination of reddish-brown, blue and blackish colours.

Trametes pubescens (Schumach. : Fr.)Pilát

Widespread but most frequent northwards, this short-lived,pileate polypore grows on decidious wood, preferably of Betula (63%)and Populus (15%). The whitish fruitbodies are softer than thoseof other species of the genus, and they are soon attacked and destroyedby various insects. Seems to be most frequent in the northern parts, butthere are only about 300 registered localities.

*Trametes suaveolensL. : Fr.

Very rare (15 localities) in the southern half of Sweden,where it primarily grows on Salix, both in humid localities andin tree-avenues. There are also occasional records from Ulmus andPopulus. The whitish fruitbodies are rather large (-15 cm) and thick,and fresh specimens can be identified by a pleasant and very characteristicanise odour.

Trametes versicolor (L. : Fr.) Pilát

So far there are about 500 records of this thin and verybeautiful polypore with zones of reddish-brown, blue and blackish colourson the pileus, all of them from the southern half of Sweden. It grows ona wide range of decidious wood, but is most common on Fagus (28%),Betula (22%) and Quercus (20%).

The more widespread Trametes ochracea is very close,but thicker and more uniformly orange to reddish-brown.

Trichaptum abietinum (Dicks. : Fr.)Ryv.

This polypore can be pileate or resupinate, but is alwayseasy to identify thanks to the purplish colour of the pores. It is veryfrequent on Picea (89%) and Pinus (11%) all over Sweden (sofar about 2700 localities), but there are also occasional finds from decidiouswood. On Pinus it is sometimes confused with Trichaptum fusco-violaceum,which has a semi-lamellate to hydnoid hymenophore.

Trichaptum fusco-violaceum (Ehrenb. : Fr.)Ryv.

Almost exclusively found on Pinus (97%), this speciesis very common, especially in the southern half of Sweden. The hymenophoregets more hydnoid with age, and very young specimens can easily be mistakenfor being poroid like Trichaptum abietinum, which is very closeand not uncommon on Pinus. Seems to prefer open, sunny localities;so far about 800 records.

*Trichaptum laricinum(Karst.) Ryv.

The hymenophore of this species consists of radial lamellae,which at least in young specimens have a distinct purplish colour. It normallygrows on Picea (83%) and Pinus (17%), but there are occasionalfinds from Betula and Salix.

Restricted to the northern half of Sweden, where it ismostly found in old coniferous forests. About 280 registered localities.

*Tyromyces alborubescens(Bourdot & Galzin) Bondartzev

A very rare polypore on Fagus wood, only recentlyfound in Sweden. Close to Tyromyces fissilis, from which it differs inthe wine-red reaction with KOH and the host.

Tyromyces chioneus (Fr.) Karst.

A rather anonymous, whitish-greyish polypore, often confusedwith Oligoporus tephroleucus. However, the strongly branched contextualhyphae and the cylindric spores make it easy to identify under the microscope.The species is often found in open forest and pastures, and seems to bewidespread although not very common; so far recorded from about 210 localities.It normally grows on decidious wood, primarily Betula (62%), Populus(9%) and Sorbus (6%), but 5% of all records are from conifers.

*Tyromyces fissilis(Berk. & Curtis) Donk

There are about 45 registered localities for this rarespecies, most of them from the eastern parts of southern Sweden. It ismainly found on living trees of Populus (41%), Malus (33%)and Fraxinus (26%), frequently in gardens, parks and pastures, lessoften in decidious forest. Fresh fruibodies have a sappy, waxy consistency,while dried, shrunk specimens are typically hard and resinous, leavingstains on paper.

*Tyromyces kmetii(Bres.) Bond. & Sing.

Young fruitbodies of this species are beautifully orange-pinkish,with age sometimes fading to almost entirely creamish. Only found on Betulain alpine Betula forest in the very north of Sweden (Abisko area).

*Tyromyces wynnei(Berk. & Br.) Donk

This odd, substipitate, mostly flabelliform-irregularpolypore grows on buried wood or litter in rich decidious forest, usuallywith Ulmus. About 10 localities, all in the southern half of thecountry.

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